Developed in France in by Emil and Estrid Vodder MLD has grown to be the most well known manual technique to assist lymph flow and aid in drainage of. Manual Lymph Drainage is an advanced therapy technique developed in Europe by Dr. Emil and Estrid Vodder. In , Dr. Vodder and his wife were working. The Dr. Vodder method of Manual Lymph Drainage (MLD) has become the most well-known and extensively used lymphatic technique around the world.

Author: Kazisida Malacage
Country: Russian Federation
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Technology
Published (Last): 26 September 2005
Pages: 492
PDF File Size: 16.95 Mb
ePub File Size: 3.29 Mb
ISBN: 723-8-19926-430-8
Downloads: 70979
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Sasho

Manual Lymph Drainage is an advanced therapy technique developed in Europe by Dr. Emil and Estrid Vodder.

Vodder and his wife were working as masseurs on the French Riviera. Most of their patients were vacationing English who were there to recover form chronic colds. All had swollen lymph nodes.

At that time, the lymphatic system was taboo emll masseurs, as well as, for physicians. Vodder broke the taboo and treated the swollen lymph nodes intuitively and successfully; the result: He went on to develop MLD.

MLD is recognized as the number one therapy for treating and maintaining primary and secondary lymphoedema.

Additionally, it has been used in the treatment of over sixty lesser pathologies. It is effective in the treatment of acute and chronic edema i. Scientific studies have proven that the immune system is supported and even boosted as a result of receiving regular MLD treatments.

A sluggish lymphatic system increases the chance of chronic illness and disease.

Emil Vodder – Alchetron, The Free Social Encyclopedia

These include sprains, fractures, voddeg surgeries and replacements, and orthodontal surgery. As a basic rule, the less swelling that occurs, the less bruising and pain will subsequently follow.

If received in a timely manner, MLD can dramatically shorten the route to recovery. Lymph drainage is gentle, rhythmical, and soothes the nervous system.

I invite you to treat yourself to seasonal MLD treatments as a way of exercising your immune system.

Click here to visit the official Roger Hughes website. Indications MLD is recognized as the number one therapy for treating and maintaining primary and secondary lymphoedema.


Wholesaler of Evershine Modular Kitchen Accessories – Modular Kitchen Baskets , Pantry Unit, Tall unit and Pullouts offered by Approx Price: Rs /Piece. Evershine Plain Basket – Buy Kitchen Basket at best price of Rs from Genx Technologies. Also find here related product comparison. | ID: Evershine Xlnt Stainless Steel Plain Basket, 1 Piece, Silver: : Home & Kitchen. Home & Kitchen .. Would you like to tell us about a lower price?.

Author: Goltikree Jukora
Country: Romania
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Travel
Published (Last): 26 February 2016
Pages: 385
PDF File Size: 6.91 Mb
ePub File Size: 20.94 Mb
ISBN: 558-4-83314-576-8
Downloads: 48104
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Kell

If you have questions or doubts, or would like more information about our products, get in touch! Sofas Fabric Sofas Wooden Sofas.

Thanks for contacting us. Our team will get in touch you shortly. Thank you for submitting your valuable feedback! Add to Wish List Add accesaories Compare. Next M P Single Pullout. Multipurpose single pullout made up of stainless steel grade. Any modular house will need m. Plus M P Single Pullout. Multipurpose single pullout aluminum basket.

kitchne The 3 racks hold kitchen essentials in an organize. Next Pull Out Basket. Pullout basket made up of stainless steel grade. Can be fixed anywhere in a kitchen t. Cute Three Shelf Pullout. Three shelf pullout kitchen basket made up of stainless steel grade. This cute basket offer. Next Three Shelf Pullout. Three shelf pullout made up of stainless steel grade.

Plus Three Shelf Pullout. Cute Two Shelf Pullout.

Two shelves pull out baskets made up of stainless steel grade and is suitable for the modular. Next Two Evershinr Pullout. These baskets are made up of stainless st.

Plus Two Shelf Pullout. Two shelves pull out baskets made up of aluminum are suitable for the modular kitchen. Thali basket made up of stainless grade used to store thali in an organized manner. Simple thali basket made up of egershine steel grade. These baskets are used for storing ki.

Buy Kitchen Baskets online Shopping in India

Kitchen thali basket made up of stainless steel grade. Essential in axcessories plates in an or. Stainless steel plain grade kitchen basket efficiently used for storage. Plain baskets are one efficient baskets which stores kitchen essentials in an organized manner.

Kitchen plain baskets used to store kitchen essentials in an organized manner. Plain thali baskets made up of aluminum. Efficient for storing plates in an organized manner.

Double pull out baskets made up of stainless steel grade. These baskets can be fixed to the.

prife Cutlery basket made up of stainless steel grade. Lets you store cutlery in an organized man. Cute Perforated Cutlery Basket. A good kitchen will always have the best s.

Welcome To Evershine

Grain trolley baskets made up of stainless steel grade. Making your kitchen look contempora. Grain trolley pull out basket made up of stainless steel grade. Used to hold heavy objects. Baskets are one of the storage units kitcheh the kitchen.

Glass basket made up of stainless steel Modular kitchen with modern accessories makes your.

Evershine Plain Basket at Rs | Kitchen Basket | ID:

Kitchen basket made up of stainless steel The storage space is efficient a. Efficiently used for storing. Cutlery basket for kitchen made up of aluminum. Used to fit in cutlery into it. The cup and saucer basket made up of stainless steel grade. Now arrange your cups and sauce. Cup and Saucer basket with stainless steel accessorries. This basket with storage facilities helps.

Now making the kitchen utensils dry is very easy and arranging as well. Bottle baskets made up. Kitchen basket made up of stainless steel grade. Highly durable and can be used to dry the. Aluminum baskets are es. Cutlery baskets made up of stainless steel grade. Lets you store cutlery into it.

Organize your kitchen utensils in an organized way with this aluminum basket. Baskets are one of the storage unit in kitchen.


Luis Landero has 15 books on Goodreads with ratings. Luis Landero’s most popular book is Juegos de la edad tardía. El guitarrista by. Luis Landero. Find El Guitarrista / the Guitarist by Luis, Landero- at Biblio. Uncommonly good collectible and rare books from uncommonly good booksellers. El Guitarrista Luis Landero. 2 likes. Book. El Guitarrista Luis Landero. Privacy · Terms. About. El Guitarrista Luis Landero. Book. 2 people like this topic.

Author: Nell Gardamuro
Country: Grenada
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Business
Published (Last): 13 February 2013
Pages: 57
PDF File Size: 4.61 Mb
ePub File Size: 4.50 Mb
ISBN: 973-6-55091-948-1
Downloads: 82425
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Fenriktilar

Home Groups Talk Zeitgeist. I Agree This site uses cookies to deliver our services, improve performance, for analytics, and if not signed in for advertising. Your use of the site and services is subject to these policies and terms. Related publisher series Everyman’s Library New Series.

Le Fenici tascabili Guanda. Helen and Kurt Wolff Books. Directed by Woody Allen. I Libri del Pavone Mondadori. Bibliotheek van de Twintigste Eeuw.

Fischer Theater Film Funk Fernsehen. I Capolavori della Medusa Mondadori.

Il romanzo di Ferrara. The Novel of Ferrara. Willard Van Orman Quine. Frederick the Great, King of Prussia.

To use Loot.co.za, you must have cookies enabled in your browser.

Related places California, USA. Related events Bloomsday – Related book awards Guardian Writers Pick Their Favorite Books. New York Times bestseller.

The Essential Man’s Library: Canon de la narrativa universal del siglo XX. The Telegraph’s Best Books: Norwegian Book Clubs’ top books of all time. The Modern Library’s Best Novels: Philip Ward’s Lifetime Reading Plan. Le Monde’s Books of the Century. Waterstones Books of the Century.

The Telegraph’s novels everyone should read. Newsweek’s Top Books: From Zero to Well-Read in Books. Daily Telegraph’s Books of the Century, The Observer’s Best Novels. I Migliori Libri del ‘ National Book Award finalist. Lanrero Book Club selection.

Guardian Greatest Non-Fiction. Best Works of Literature by Piero Scaruffi. National Book Critics Circle Award finalist. Murasaki Shikibu Literary Prize. Lista El Mundo de las mejores novelas. Academy Award for Best Director Nominee.

Reading the world in books. Best Italian novels by Piero Scaruffi. Die Romane des Jahrhunderts. KIB – Non Fiction books everyone should read.

: Cookies

The Favorite Novels of Librarians. Top livres de SensCritique. Play It Again, Sam: Who Killed Daniel Pearl? La strega e il capitano by Leonardo Sciascia. The Twilight of Thoughts by E.

La vida negociable

Cioran — not in English Common Knowledge. Ten Novels and Their Authors by W. Crimes and Misdemeanors by Woody Allen.


A/AM – 10 Standard Specification for Alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure and High-Temperature Parts, chromium alloy steel, chromium-molybdenum steel . Publication Date: Wed Jan 01 EST Research Org.: Division of Reactor Development and Technology (AEC), Washington, D. C.. OSTI Identifier: . ASTM A/AM: Standard Specification for Alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure and High-Temperature Parts.

Author: Gromi Fenrigor
Country: Ukraine
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Personal Growth
Published (Last): 12 December 2008
Pages: 148
PDF File Size: 3.75 Mb
ePub File Size: 10.71 Mb
ISBN: 183-2-72104-883-8
Downloads: 48792
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Kale

When migrating the old forums over to our new forums we were unable to retain the identity of the authors, so the old posts will show up as “anonymous”.

All NEW posts will show up credited to their authors. So please participate and share knowledge just as you have in the past. Testimonials Contact Us Sitemap.

ASTM A Specification – Boltport Fasteners LLP

NOTICE When migrating the old forums over to our new astn we were unable to retain the identity of the authors, so the old posts will show up as “anonymous”. Discussion Forums – The Hendrix Group. A compare A Hi Dears I am not a material specialist.

I am a equipment designer. We want to order some Reactors. One of reactor’s vendors ask me to change forging material for nozzles from A F22 cl2 to A F22 cl. Generaly which one is better and more expensive?

ASTM A Fittings – ASTM A Gr Fittings Manufacturer from Mumbai

These are meant for forged fittings for valves and high temperature parts. Cost wise both should be more or less same. You have to order A F 22 or A F 22 A to suit your boiler drum requirements and specify supplementary tests to meet the same.

Hope this helps C. Reactors and not boillers.

ASTM A336 Specification

I underestood that there is no problem to change A F22 with A F But what about Class? Microeng There is no Cl 2 for A F Please note that As per Clause 1.

Products made to this specification are limited to a maximum weight of 10, lb [ kg]. That might be one reason for using SA Regards Gree. The safe operation of oil refineries in the United States is under constant r January 30, – February 2, Where: Stay Current Sign up for our quarterly newsletter covering updates on corrosion. Page 1 of 2.


Warlord Warlord is the third and final book of the Hythrun Chronicles Marla Wolfblade’s world has been shattered by the death of both her beloved court’esa and. Praise for Jennifer Fallon’in a word: captivating’ Herald Sun on Wolfblade’an outstanding fantasy read’ AussieReviews on Wolfblade’sparkling high fantasy’. Jennifer Fallon (born ) is an Australian author of fantasy and science fiction. She is also a Wolfblade (); Warrior (); Warlord ().

Author: Maut Zolozil
Country: Niger
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: History
Published (Last): 14 September 2015
Pages: 425
PDF File Size: 13.58 Mb
ePub File Size: 1.90 Mb
ISBN: 361-6-30600-190-6
Downloads: 19817
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Vogar

Jennifer Fallon

Marla Wolfblade is reeling from the loss of her closest confidant, Elizaar the Fool, who taught her the Rules of Gaining and Wielding Jennifdr, and helped shape her into a force in Hythria. But Marla’s plans for revenge are disrupted when she discovers she has a dangerous adversary On the border, Fardohnya has massed its troops for an invasion, and Marla’s eldest son, Damin Wolfblade, heir to the throne of Hythria, finds his ability to fight back is thwarted by fqllon, politics, and the foolishness of the High Prince Back in Krakandar, Mahkas Damaran awaits news of the battle and has sealed the city against Damin’s return.

With the city on the brink of starvation, it seems only theft on an unprecedented scale can free Krakandar from Mahkas’s madness and tyranny North Star Guide Me Home. Black Sun Light My Way. Daughters of the Storm. Winter Be My Shield. Kings of the Wyld. The Legion of Flame. Caves Fa,lon The Dead. Tales of Silver Downs.

Jeninfer Death of Dulgath. The Price of Valor. The Chronicles of Kydan 1.

Hawkwood and the Kings. Lord of the Shadows.

Eye of the Labyrinth. The Lion of Senet. The Palace of Impossible Dreams. The Gods of Amyrantha. How to write a great review. The review must be at least 50 jennifre long. The title should be at least 4 characters long. Your display name should be at least jnnifer characters long. At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude or profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer’s personal information.

You submitted the following rating and review. We’ll publish them on our site once we’ve reviewed them.

Item s unavailable for purchase. Please review your cart. You can remove the unavailable item s now or we’ll automatically remove it at Checkout.

Continue shopping Checkout Continue shopping. Chi ama i libri sceglie Kobo e inMondadori.

Warlord | Jennifer Fallon wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

In this series Book 7. Ratings and Reviews 0 5 star ratings 0 reviews.

How to write a great review Do Say what you liked best and least Describe the author’s style Explain the rating you gave Don’t Use rude and profane language Include any personal information Mention spoilers or the book’s price Recap the plot. Close Report a review At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude jeninfer profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer’s personal information. Would you like us to take another look at this review?

No, cancel Yes, report it Thanks! You’ve successfully reported this review.

We appreciate your feedback. April 29, Imprint: You can read this item using any of the following Kobo apps and devices:


Entrevista de Laura Castellanos Fotographias de Ricardo Trabulsi Diseno de Alenjandro Magallanes Bunker / Alterno Press The Heart of the Sky: Travels Among the Maya. Tokyo: Kodansha International, Castellanos, Laura. Corte de Caja: Entrevista al Subcomandante Marcos. corte de caja subcomandante marcos pdf free. Quote. Postby Just» Tue Aug 28, am. Looking for corte de caja subcomandante marcos pdf free.

Author: Arasho Fenrizshura
Country: Guatemala
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: History
Published (Last): 7 November 2006
Pages: 120
PDF File Size: 19.18 Mb
ePub File Size: 17.7 Mb
ISBN: 454-1-99340-207-2
Downloads: 74464
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Tule

Corte de caja – Entrevista al subcomandante Marcos – cover photo | sourcewithheld

He is the author of Una vita: Savage Thought and Philosophy of Intensity. John Pickles is Earl N. He is the author of A History of Spaces: Joost De Bloois, This chapter outlines and origins and stakes of the current debates surrounding autonomous thought and practices.

The editors argue marcis in autonomous movements around the world, whether in the European traditions of operaismo and post-operaismo, or in the Latin American movements for local or indigenous autonomy, new paradigms are challenging earlier critiques of political economy that have universalized the political subject of the proletariat, the overarching Leninist-Marxist emphasis on the state apparatus, and the liberal emphasis on individual freedom and rights.

Sign In or Create an Account. The Anomie of the Earth: Federico Luisetti Federico Luisetti. subcomxndante

John Pickles John Pickles. Wilson Kaiser Wilson Kaiser.

best Subcomandante Marcos images on Pinterest | Culture, Anarchism and Arm

This content is made freely available by the publisher. It may not be redistributed or altered. You do not currently have access to this content. You could not be signed in.

corte de caja subcomandante marcos pdf free

Sign In Forgot password? Don’t have an account? Sign in via your Institution Sign In.

Duke University Press W. This site uses cookies. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our privacy policy.


Tablets, computers. Download epub, mobi, txt, or doc. What does cair in spanish mean? There is no such word in Spanish. A similar word is “caer”, which means. Ekstrak etil asetat difraksinasi kromatografi cair vakum (KCV). Pemurnian dengan kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT) preparatif. Isolat dikarakterisasi dengan. isolasi steroid dengan kromatografi cair vakum menggunakan fasa diam silika gel 60 GF dan fasa gerak menggunakan pelarut n-heksana, kloroform, dan.

Author: Vokasa Nektilar
Country: Philippines
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Politics
Published (Last): 7 July 2015
Pages: 329
PDF File Size: 7.21 Mb
ePub File Size: 19.57 Mb
ISBN: 235-2-95004-405-1
Downloads: 32699
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Gujinn

Prinsip kerja kromatografi cair vakum pdf, ebay information

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Kromatografi Suction Column atau vacuum liquid chromatography VLC atau kromatografi cair vakum KCV adalah bentuk kromatografi kolom khususnya berguna untuk fraksinasi kasar yang cepat terhadap suatu ekstrak.

Kondisi vakum adalah alternatif xair mempercepat aliran fase gerak dari atas ke bawah. Metode ini sering digunakan untuk fraksinasi awal dari suatu ekstrak non polar atau ekstrak semipolar.

Efek samping penggunaan Antibiotik yang tidak sesuai anjuran dokter more. Efek samping dari penggunaan antibiotika yang tidak sesuai dengan anjuran dokter dapat menggagalkan pengobatan dan menimbulkan bahaya-bahaya lain.

Perbedaan bakteri gram positif dan bakteri gram negatif more. Media yang sering digunakan secara umum dalam mikrobiologi more. Teori tentang Antibiotik more.

Prinsip kerja kromatografi cair vakum pdf, When did Reda Caire die? –

Antibiotik adalah semua senyawa kimia yang dihasilkan oleh organisme hidup atau yang diperoleh melalui sintesis yang memiliki indeks kemoterapi tinggi, dan manifestasi aktivitasnya terjadi pada dosis yang sangat rendah. Serta secara spesifik melalui inhibisi proses vital tertentu pada virus, mikroorganisme, atau berbagai organisme bersel majemuk Wattimena et al, Antibiotik adalah zat-zat yang dihasilkan oleh mikroorganisme, dan zat-zat itu dalam jumlah yang sedikit pun mempunyai daya penghambat kegiatan mikroorganisme yang lain.

Antibiotik yamg efektif bagi banyak spesies bakteri, baik kokus, basil, maupun spiril, dikatakan mempunyai spektrum yang luas.

Sebaliknya, suatu antibiotik yang hanya efektif untuk spesies tertentu, disebut antibiotik yang spektrumnya sempit. Sebelum suatu antibiotik digunakan untuk keperluan pengobatan, maka perlulah terlebih dahulu antibiotik itu diujikan efeknya terhadap spesies bakteri tertentu. Ada beberapa antibiotik yang tidak dihasilkan oleh golongan jamur, melainkan oleh golongan bakteri sendiri, misalnya tirotrisin yang dihasilkan oleh Bacillus brevis, basitrasin oleh Bacillus subtilis, polimiksin oleh Bacillus polymyxa.

Antibiotik yang pertama dikenal adalah penisilin, suatu zat yang dihasilkan oleh jamur Penicillium Dwidjoseputro Antibiotika terbagi menjadi beberapa golongan yaitu:. Teori Tentang Ekstraksi more. Laporan Uji Identifikasi Karbohidrat more.

Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. Click here to sign up. Help Center Find new research papers in:


Hepatocarcinoma fibrolamelar un tumor de adultos jóvenes poco frecuente. . Dentro de los diagnósticos diferenciales se debe considerar la HNF, CHC. Protocolo de diagnóstico diferencial de las lesiones ocupantes de espacio en el hígado cirrótico Clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Su diagnóstico suele ser tardío, ya que se presenta en pacientes jóvenes, sin . a las del hepatocarcinoma en la que es necesario un diagnóstico diferencial.

Author: Kazibei Kara
Country: Finland
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Sex
Published (Last): 2 December 2004
Pages: 173
PDF File Size: 4.82 Mb
ePub File Size: 6.44 Mb
ISBN: 349-8-66312-532-3
Downloads: 81079
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Gogis

The characterization of focal liver lesions is very important. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered the best imaging method for evaluating such lesions, but does not allow for the diagnosis in all cases. Hepatocsrcinoma use of dlferencial contrast agents increases the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and reduces the number of non-specific liver lesions.

The main indications for the method include: The use of hepatobiliary contrast agents may reduce the need for invasive diagnostic procedures and further investigations with other imaging methods, besides the need for imaging follow-up.

The characterization of focal liver lesions has a hepatocarcioma clinical relevance. Magnetic resonance imaging MRI with intravenous contrast injection extracellular gadolinium-based contras media commonly utilized in the radiological practice is considered the best imaging method in the evaluation of such lesions. However, MRI does not allow for the diagnosis in all cases whose etiology remains undetermined.

The utilization of hepatobiliary contrast agents increases the MRI accuracy, reducing the necessity of invasive diagnostic procedures intended to clarify the diagnosis of nonspecific lesions 12.

The currently available hepatocyte-selective contrast media are the following: Such contrast agents are absorbed by hepatocytes via OATP1 transporter polypeptide adenosintriphosphate-dependent organic anion transporterthe same as the bilirubin transporter.

A fraction of hepatobiliary contrast agent is excreted by cMOAT into the biliary canaliculi multispecific canalicular organic anion transporter 1. Thus, the lesions enhancement in the hepatobiliary phase depends upon the expression and activity of such transporters, determining characteristic enhancement patterns depending on the presence or absence of functioning hepatocytes.

In the hepatobiliary phase, the healthy liver is evenly enhanced, becoming hyperintense; the contrast agent uptake by the biliary tract occurs progressively, and the blood vessels become hyperintense as compared with the liver parenchyma as the contrast diferencoal is no longer in the vascular compartment. Contrast uptake is also observed in focal liver lesions with functioning hepatocytes 1.

Additionally, hepatobiliary contrast agents allow for evaluating the biliary tract 1 – 3. The usual dynamic study with arterial, portal and delayed phases is also performed with such contrast agents. So, hepatobiliary contrast agents combine the pharmacodynamic features of extracellular gadolinium usual dynamic study with the delayed hepatobiliary phase, adding functional information to the MRI study and enhancing its diagnostic accuracy 124 – 6.

The pharmacokinetics and doses of gadobenate dimeglumine and gadoxetic acid are different. Consequently, the hepatobiliary phase acquisition time is different for each type of contrast agent and should be obtained minutes after gadobenate dimeglumine administration ranging between 1 and 3 hoursand 20 minutes after gadoxetic acid administration ranging between 10 and minutes 1.

The doses recommended for intravenous injection of such contrast agents are also different, difdrencial to 0. As the gadoxetic acid dose corresponds to one hepatkcarcinoma of the habitual extracellular gadolinium dose, the arterial phase acquisition time is critical, requiring temporal precision methods, such as real time visualization of the contrast progression through the arterial system, for the success in this phase acquisition.

There was a problem providing the content you requested

On the other hand, the enhancement in the hepatobiliary phase is prolonged, allowing for acquisition of images with better spatial resolution, as well as its repetition in case of imaging artifacts 4. As gadobenate dimeglumine is utilized, it is recommended that the MRI study be performed as usual, including the dynamic study up to the delayed phase; then the procedure be interrupted and the patient returns after minutes for acquisition of the hepatobiliary phase.

As gadoxetic acid is utilized, the hepatobiliary phase occurs in 20 minutes, so it is recommended that the order of sequences acquisition be changed in order to optimize the acquisition time. Initially, the T1-weigthed sequences in-phase, out-ofphase and with fat saturation are performed.

HEPATOCARCINOMA DE CÈLULAS CLARAS by marta garnica ureña on Prezi

As necessary, heavily T2-weighted cholangiographic images should also be acquired before the contrast injection, since hepatobiliary contrast agents are excreted by the biliary tract and can shorten the T2-relaxation time. Subsequently, gadoxetic acid is intravenously injected and the dynamic study arterial, portal and delayed phases is performed.

Diffusion- and T2-weighted sequences may be acquired after hepatobiliary contrast agent injection, considering that there is no significant interference effect. Finally, the hepatobiliary phase is acquired 20 minutes after gadoxetic acid administration 14. The use of hepatobiliary contrast agents requires some care. Focal liver lesions enhancement may be less intense during the dynamic study, particularly in the arterial phase, because the recommended dose of gadoxetic acid is lower than the habitual extracellular gadolinium dose 5.

Additionally, patients with advanced cirrhosis may present less hepatobiliary contrast uptake as a result from liver dysfunction. Patients with advanced liver and kidney diseases alternatively compensate the contrast agents clearance by renal or biliary excretion, respectively. Patients with cirrhosis Child A or B do not present any significant alteration in the total clearance of hepatobiliary contrast agents; but in cirrhosis Child C, there is a decreased total clearance and increased half life, with compensatory increase of renal excretion 8.

Adverse effects of hepatobiliary contrast agents rarely occur and, if present, are similar to the ones reported in the use of extra-cellular gadolinium. Main indications for hepatobiliary contrast include differentiation between focal nodular hyperplasia FNH and adenoma, characterization of hepatocelular carcinomas HCCsdetection of small liver metastasis, assessment of biliary anatomy, and characterization of postoperative biliary fistulas.

The imaging characterization of benign and malignant liver lesions is very important. Benign liver lesions are frequently found, even in patients with known neoplasia. The most frequent differential diagnoses for hypervascular lesions in patients with no hepatopathy include hemangioma, FNH and adenoma. Hemangiomas generally present typical imaging findings and are easily diagnosed by computed tomography or MRI with extracellular gadolinium contrast agent.

However, the differentiation between FNH and adenoma is not always easy at conventional MRI, because both conditions may appear as nonspecific hypervascular lesions, generating anguish for the patient and challenging the physician, in addition to the cost and patient’s anxiety with repeated examinations.

FNH is a benign lesion that does not require any intervention, while adenoma presents risk for malignization, necrosis and bleeding which might require emergency surgery. Hepatobiliary contrast allow for the differentiation between FNH and adenoma in most cases, even in those of small lesions.

The typical FNH presents with septa and lobulated or microlobulated borders, with intermediate signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences, low lesion-organ contrast and homogeneous arterial contrast uptake, with decay in the subsequent phases, becoming isointense to the adjacent liver parenchyma.

The presence of central scar markedly hyperintense on T2-weighted and hypointense on T1-weighted sequences, with no contrast uptake in the arterial phase and late contrast uptake is typical. However, in some cases, especially those of small lesions without central scarone cannot differentiate between FNH and adenoma due to overlapping imaging findings 14.

FNH presents greater density of functioning hepatocytes than a healthy liver parenchyma, in association with abnormal bile ducts which do not communicate with greater bile ducts, with consequential slower biliary excretion as compared with the surrounding liver. Female, year-old patients presenting with liver steatosis and multiple, well-defined focal hypervascular lesions, with intermediate signal intensity on T2- weighted sequence, with poor lesion-organ contrast-enhancement.

However, the presence of intralesional fat was detected on out-of-phase T1-weighted sequence. The presence of intralesional fat is not usually found in FNH and suggests the diagnosis of adenoma — adenomatosis, in the present case —, with a very different prognosis and approach. On the other hand, the lesions showed homogeneous hepatobiliary contrast uptake, hence the highest likelihood of the diagnosis of multiple FNHs. Female, year-old, asymptomatic patient presenting with a hypervascular liver nodule to be clarified, without intralesional fat and without central scar.

Homogeneous ddiagnostico contrast uptake indicates the diagnosis of FNH. Adenomas are well defined, homogeneous or heterogeneous lesions. The largest ones tend to present signal heterogeneity, with mild to moderate hypersignal on T2-weighted, hyposignal on T1-weighted sequences, homogeneous or heterogeneous diavnostico contrast-enhancement, late washout, and possible development of capsule Adenomas are composed of hepatocytes containing glycogen and lipids surrounded by a capsule.

Although containing functioning hepatocytes, there is a lack of biliary ducts resulting in deficiency in bilirubin hepatcoarcinoma hepatobiliary contrast excretion. Additionally, adenomas present smaller expression of membrane transporters such as Diferencual 12.

Thus, in the hepatobiliary phase, most adenomas are hypointense in relation to the surrounding parenchyma Figure 3. Rarely, there is hepatobiliary contrast uptake by adenomas and, in cases where it occurs, such an uptake tends to be preferentially peripheral in the hepatobiliary phase 124. Female, year-old patient undergoing follow-up for metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor, with liver nodules to be clarified.


The smallest lesion arrowheads presents subtle hypersignal on T2-weighted and marked signal hepatocarvinoma on out-of-phase T1-weighted sequence caused by the presence of intralesional fat. No hepatobiliary contrast uptake is observed. The presence of intralesional fat and the absence of hepatobiliary contrast uptake indicate a probable diagnosis of adenoma.

The largest lesion arrows presents high signal intensity on T2-weighted, hyposignal on t1-weighted sequence, and nodular, peripheral and discontinuous uptake in diagnostco arterial-phase, and no hepatobiliary contrast uptake that is a typical hemangioma behavior. Hemangiomas do not contain functioning hepatocytes so uptake of this contrast medium is not observed. Also, in the delayed-phase, the fill-in pattern is not observed, which might occur with the utilization of hepatobiliary contrast agent.

Hemangiomas normally have a typical presentation at MRI with extracellular contrast eiferencial are not an indication for investigation with hepatobiliary contrast. At conventional MRI, hemangiomas present marked hypersignal on T2-weighted, hyposignal on T1-weighted sequences, discontinuous, nodular, peripheral contrast enhancement in the arterial phase, tending to centripetal fill-in by the contrast agent in the subsequent phases 13 However, considering that hemangiomas are common lesions, they will be frequently present on images acquired with hepatobiliary contrast for several reasons.

Hemangiomas present the same imaging findings at dynamic studies with hepatobiliary contrast; however, in the delayed phase, as the hepatobiliary contrast medium is leaving the interstitium and diferncial into the functioning hepatocytes, the hemangioma fill-in might or might not occur in this phase, differing from its usual behavior with the use of extracellular gadolinium Hemangiomas are formed by a clump of blood vessels and do not contain hepatocytes, therefore they do not present contrast enhancement during the hepatobiliary phase and appear hypointense in this phase 12915 Figure 4.

A potential confusion factor is the fact that some hemangiomas may present subtle central contrast uptake during the early hepatobiliary phase because of the tendency to persistent centripetal enhancement at dynamic study, like in those with extracellular gadolinium 1. Female, year-old patient with liver nodules to be clarified. The caudate lobe lesion arrowheads presents subtle hypersignal on T2-weighted sequence and signal loss on T1-weighted out-of-phase sequence caused by the presence of intralesional fat.

Such a lesion shows intense and homogeneous contrast uptake in the arterial-phase, with decay in the portal and delayed phases, presenting greater hepatobiliary contrast uptake than the adjacent parenchyma, suggesting FNH as the first diagnostic hypothesis. Considering that the presence of intralesional fat in NFH is rare, the patient will be maintained under imaging follow-up.

The lesions in segments VII and VIII arrows are similar, with marked hypersignal on T2-weighted, hyposignal on T1-weighted sequence, and nodular, peripheral and discontinuous uptake in the diferendial phase, a characteristic of hemangiomas.

In cirrhosis, the hepatobiliary contrast uptake by the nodules depends on their differentiation stage and on the presence of functioning hepatocytes.

Low-grade regenerative and dysplastic nodules present preferentially portal yepatocarcinoma, contain functioning hepatocytes and, like the surrounding parenchyma, show hepatobiliary contrast uptake.

Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report

High-degree dysplastic nodules lose the portal vascularization and start gaining abnormal arterial vascularization. Thus, high-grade dysplastic nodules tend to be hypovascular in the arterial and portal phases, but heaptocarcinoma also become hypervascular in the arterial phase in cases where the abnormal arterial vascularization is more developed.

High-grade dysplastic nodules contain functioning diferemcial and also demonstrate hepatobiliary contrast uptake in the same way as the surrounding parenchyma Figure 5. Hepatobiliary contrast uptake by HCC also depends on its differentiation stage. Well-differentiated HCCs contain functioning hepatocytes and might show hepatobiliary contrast uptake. On the other hand, poorly-differentiated or diaghostico hepatocarcinomas do not contain functioning hepatocytes and do not show hepatobiliary contrast uptake, remaining hypointense in relation to the surrounding parenchyma 2diagnosrico17 – 19 Figure 6.

Male, year-old patients presenting with chronic hepatopathy and liver nodule to be clarified, adjacent to the gallbladder, as seen at ultrasonography. Small nodules are diferenciql adjacent to the gallbladder, with hyposignal on T2-weighted sequence, without expression on the other sequences and on the conventional dynamic study, but with hepatobiliary contrast uptake, leading to the diagnosis of regenerative nodules.

Well-differentiated HCCs show hepatobiliary contrast uptake, requiring imaging follow-up. Male, year-old patient presenting with chronic C virus hepatopathy.

Two liver nodules bepatocarcinoma seen in the segment VIII arrows as well as a larger nodule, in the segment VI arrowheadsall of them contrast-enhanced in the arterial-phase, washout in the delayed-phase, and without uptake in the hepatobiliary-phase, characterizing HCCs. Poorly differentiated or undifferentiated HCCs do not contain functioning hepatocytes so hepatobiliary contrast uptake is not observed.

The different enhancement patterns depend on the histological grade of the HCCs and may be explained by the membrane transporters expression.

Hepatobiliary contrast uptake by HCCs depends on the tumor differentiation stage and on the amount of functioning hepatocytes 24.

The diagnostic performance of MRI in the detection of HCCs of all sizes increases with the utilization of hepatobiliary contrast agents 1 However, in cases of advanced cirrhosis, the contrast uptake by the liver parenchyma may be compromised by decreased hepatocytes function, which would result in reduction of the method’s diagnostoco to detect HCCs 4 The differentiation between HCC and perfusion alterations may also represent a diagnostic challenge.

Perfusional alterations present a signal similar to the one of the remainder hepatic tissue during the portal and hepatobiliary phases, while most HCCs, except the well-differentiated ones, present hyposignal in the hepatobiliary phase


We have written an article on if you should buy the Foundations of Software Testing: ISTQB Certification 3rd edition or not. But many ISTQB. Whether you are a students or tester of ISTQB, this book is an essential purchase if you want to benefit from the Foundations of Software Testing: ISTQB Certification. Front Cover · Dorothy Graham, Erik Van Veenendaal, Isabel Evans. Foundations of Software Testing has ratings and 17 reviews. Intended to Dorothy Graham,. Rex Black It can help to get ISTQB certified. It helped me.

Author: Meztijar Akinogar
Country: Honduras
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Literature
Published (Last): 12 October 2006
Pages: 246
PDF File Size: 17.2 Mb
ePub File Size: 17.10 Mb
ISBN: 120-7-35720-694-6
Downloads: 24252
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Melkis

The lowest-priced brand-new, unused, unopened, undamaged item in its original packaging where packaging is applicable.

Packaging should be the same as what is found in a retail store, unless the item is handmade or was packaged by graha, manufacturer in non-retail packaging, such as an unprinted box or plastic bag.

See details for additional description.

Skip to main content. See all 14 brand new listings.

Foundations of Software Testing ISTQB Certification : Dorothy Graham :

Be the first to write a review. Completely updated to comprehensively reflect the most recent changes to the ISTQB Foundation Syllabus, the book adopts a practical, hands-on approach, covering the fundamental topics that every system and software tester should know.

The authors are themselves developers of the ISTQB syllabus and are highly respected international bh, teachers and authors within the field o software testing. This is the ideal book for launching a testing career based on best practices and aligned with global ISTQB certification.

Section 2 What is testing? Section 3 Seven testing principles Section 4 Fundamental test process Section 5 The psychology of testing Section 6 Code of ethics Chapter review Sample exam questions 2 Testing throughout the software life cycle Section 1 Software development models Section 2 Test levels Section 3 Test types Section 4 Maintenance testing Chapter review Sample exam questions 3 Static techniques Section 1 Static techniques and the test process Section 2 Review process Section 3 Static analysis by tools Chapter reviewSample exam questions 4 Test design techniques Section 1 The test development process Section 2 Categories of test design techniques Section 3 Specification-based or black-box techniques Section 4 Structure-based or white-box techniques Section 5 Experience-based techniques Section 6 Choosing test techniques Chapter review Sample exam questions Exercises: Test design techniques Exercise solutions 5 Test management Section 1 Test organization Section 2 Test planning and estimation Section 3 Test progress monitoring and control Section 4 Configuration management Section 5 Risk and testing Section 6 Incident management Chapter review Sample exam questions Exercise: Incident report Exercise solution 6 Tool support for testing Section 1 Types of test tool Section 2 Effective use of tools: Show More Show Less.

Any Condition Any Condition.

No ratings or reviews yet. Best Selling in Textbooks, Education See all. Harry Potter Years by J.

RowlingHardcover Save on Textbooks, Education Trending price is based on prices over last 90 days. You may also like.

Paperback Books in English for Rex Stout. This item doesn’t belong on this page.

EO 12656 PDF

On November 18, , following the election of George H.W. Bush as president, . Ronald Reagan issued Executive Order No. , entitled “Assignment of. During the funding lapse, is not being supported. If data feeds are not available from GPO, will not be. Executive Order of March 16, .. , and sections (3)-(4) of Executive Order of November 18, , are revoked.

Author: Kigashakar Vudolabar
Country: Gambia
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Video
Published (Last): 6 November 2011
Pages: 457
PDF File Size: 12.23 Mb
ePub File Size: 4.29 Mb
ISBN: 230-1-54624-355-3
Downloads: 81782
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Zoloshura

My understanding is that organizations in the Executive Branch have been asked to comment on the appropriateness for revision and revocation of E. I am suggesting the revocation of that Executive Order and the incorporation into it the underlying principles of NSDD [] concerning mobilization.

That NSDD and its partial supersession by NSDD would be encompassed in a new Executive Order that would be all-hazards for domestic catastrophic events and would place the Vice Ep of the United States in a leadership role while still subject to the direction, control and delegation of the Chief Executive of the United States, the President. While the new order would impact all civilian agencies it would not impact either the military chain of command or the President’s role as Commander In Chief.

Because it would impact all civil organizations housed in DOD it would make clearer the civil military relationships and fo control of the military by the Commander In Chief.


My text absent the incorporation of NSDD and is as follows: National Emergency Preparedness and Mobilization Policy. A catastrophic domestic incident or event is any occurrence, including natural disaster, military attack, technological emergency, or other emergency, that seriously degrades or seriously threatens any element of the federal government, the STATES and their local units and prevents that federal system from protecting the lives and property of individuals residing in the United States.

Policy for preparing, mobilizing, planning, preventing, responding or recovery from such events and mitigating such in order to promote resilience of the United States to such a catastrophic domestic event shall be established by the President.

These assignments are based, whenever possible, on extensions of the regular missions of the departments and agencies. Plans so developed may be executed only in the event that authority for such execution is otherwise authorized by law.

EO 12656 Assignment of Emergency Preparedness Responsibilities

As used in this Order, preparedness functions and activities include, as appropriate, policies, plans, procedures, and readiness measures that enhance the ability of the United States Government and the STATES, and the private sector to mobilize for, respond to, and recover from any catastrophic incident or event.

Management of Catastrophic Civil Preparedness and Mobilization. All Cabinet members and agency heads shall be consulted regarding catastrophic national preparedness and mobilization programs, functions, and activities.

The head of each Federal department and agency, as appropriate, shall: The head of each Federal department and agency shall ensure the continuity of essential functions in any national security emergency by providing for: The federal government shall support with appropriate guidance and funding STATE continuity of government. The head of each Federal department and agency, as appropriate within assigned areas of responsibility, shall: Federal Benefit, Insurance, and Loan Programs.

Executive Order Assignment of Emergency Preparedness Responsibilities

The head of each Federal department and agency that administers a loan, insurance, or benefit programs that relies upon the Federal Government payment system shall coordinate with the Secretary of the Treasury in developing plans for the continuation or restoration, to the extent feasible, of such programs in national security emergencies. The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy and the heads of Federal departments and agencies having significant research and development programs shall advise the Vice President and the President of scientific and technological developments that should be considered in catastrophic civil preparedness and mobilization planning.

The head of each Federal department and agency is hereby authorized, to the extent otherwise permitted by law, to redelegate the functions assigned by this Order, and authorize successive re-delegations to organizations, officers, or employees within that department or agency, and where appropriate to cross-delegate to other departments and agencies with the permission of the Vice President or President.

Retention of Existing Authority. Nothing in this Order shall be deemed to derogate from existing statutory assignments of functions to any Federal department or agency or officer thereof.

Executive Order Noas amended, is hereby revoked. This Order is effective immediately.

Posted by The Vacation Lane Group at 8: Newer Post Older Post Home.